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Nahid Golafshani (2003)

Understanding Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research

The Qualitative Report, 8(4):597-607.

The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it
is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm. Since reliability and validity
are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in a
naturalistic approach. Like reliability and validity as used in quantitative
research are providing springboard to examine what these two terms mean in the
qualitative research paradigm, triangulation as used in quantitative research to
test the reliability and validity can also illuminate some ways to test or maximize
the validity and reliability of a qualitative study. Therefore, reliability, validity
and triangulation, if they are relevant research concepts, particularly from a
qualitative point of view, have to be redefined in order to reflect the multiple ways
of establishing truth. Key words: Reliability, Validity, Triangulation, Construct,
Qualitative, and Quantitative

Richard's PhD

"The library is not a shrine for the worship of books. It is not a temple where literary incense must be burned or where one's devotion to the bound book is expressed in ritual. A library, to modify the famous metaphor of Socrates, should be the delivery room for the birth of ideas - a place where history comes to life." — Norman Cousins, 1954